ATP - Advanced Technology Program - A partnership between government and private industry to conduct high-risk research to develop enabling technologies that promise significant commercial payoffs and widespread benefits for the economy. (www.atp.nist.gov)
BEA - Bureau of Economic Analysis (www.bea.gov).
cc - Cubic centimeters - Industry standard abbreviation used in lieu of cm3 when referring to engine displacement.
CO - Carbon monoxide - Colorless, odorless, and poisonous byproduct of combustion.
CORE - Collaborative Research database - A database of research joint ventures listed in the Federal Register, maintained by Dr. Albert Link of the University of North Carolina, with a grant from the National Science Foundation.
CR4 - Four-firm concentration ratio - In an identified industry, the market share held by the top four firms.
CR8 - Eight-firm concentration ratio - In an identified industry, the market share held by the top eight firms.
DOJ - U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov).
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (www.epa.gov).
FCM - Flow-control machining - Two finishing processes which increase the functional precision of cast-metal parts which carry fluids in interior passageways. FCM's first targeted application was to increase airflow in automobile engines, where the increase in functional precision can be used to increase engine horsepower, increase fuel efficiency, reduce emissions, and reduce the cost of engines.
FTC - Federal Trade Commission (www.ftc.gov).
GDP - Gross Domestic Product - The output of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States.
HC - Hydrocarbons - Byproducts of combustion, such as NMHC, that lead to ozone formation.
HP - Horsepower - Nonmetric measurement of power (see kilowatts, kW).
HHI - Herfindahl-Hirschman Index - In an identified industry, the sum of the squared percentage market shares of all the firms.
IPO - Initial public offering - The first market issuance of stock in a company.
kW - kilowatt - Metric measure of power, such as the power of an engine.
NAICS - North American Industry Classification System - Industry classification system, from 2 to 6 digits, that replaces SIC beginning in 1997. Provides consistent framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of industrial statistics used by government policy analysts, by academics and researchers, by the business community, and by the public. Follows principle of aggregation that producing units that use similar production processes should be grouped together. Reflects changes in technology and growth and diversification of services in recent decades. (http://www.census.gov/naics)
NMHC - Nonmethane hydrocarbons - Byproducts of combustion that lead to ozone formation.
NOx - Nitrogen oxides - Byproducts of combustion that contribute to acid rain production.
OELink - Original Equipment Link - Database of small engine manufacturers and their products compiled and maintained by Power Systems Research, of St. Paul Minnesota (www.powersys.com).
OHV - Overhead-valve - An Otto-cycle, four-stroke engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located above the combustion chamber within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as "valve-in-head" engines (Federal Register).
PM - Particulate matter - Solid pollutant in engine exhaust.
PPI - Progressive Policy Institute - (www.ppionline.org).
R&D - Research and development.
REMI - Regional Economic Models, Inc. - Amherst, MA developer of Policy Insight, macroeconomic forecasting software (www.remi.com).
RJV - Research joint venture - Any of a number of different cooperative business structures in which several firms (sometimes involving government agencies, such as ATP) pool resources in order to spur new research and development.
SCP - Structure-conduct-performance - A conceptual model commonly used in Industrial Organization, relating market structure to market conduct and market performance.
SIC - Standard Industrial Classification - Numerical coding system, from 2 to 4 digits, for systematically classifying industries (replaced by NAICS beginning in 1997).
SSIE - Small spark-ignition engines - Engines such as those used in lawnmowers.
SV - Side-valve - An Otto-cycle, four-stroke engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located to the side of the cylinder, not within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as "L-head" engines (Federal Register).
TAI - Technology Adoption Indicators - A set of indicators that measure the likelihood of technology adoption derived from publicly available, broadly defined, industry-level data sets covering the manufacturing sector.
USPTO - U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (www.uspto.gov).
USPCS - U.S. patent classification system - A coding system used by the USPTO to classify patents, generally by the major function or operation of the patent.
June 11, 2003
NIST is an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department